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PSYC 1060 Exam 2, PSYC 1060 Exam 1, PSYC 1060 Exam 3, PSYC 1060 Final
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Terms in this set (152)
Which of the following indicates that the test, scale, or instrument used in research works every time?
reliability
Which of the following answers the question, "How do I know that the test, scale, or instrument I use measures what it is supposed to?"
validity
If you cannot establish reliability and validity, then your results _____
are inconclusive
Which of the following are all types of reliability?
test-retest, parallel, and internal consistency
Which of the following are all types of validity?
content, criterion, and construct
The actual or measured score you receive is known as the ______
observed score
If measures associated with a test are consistent, then you can conclude that the measure is ______
reliable
The fact that high-school class rank is highly correlated with college GPA is an example of what type of validity?
predictive
An instrument cannot be valid unless it is reliable.
True
T/F
The observed score is equal to the true score minus the error score.
false
The foundation of inferential statistics is ______.
probability
Which of the following is another name for the normal curve?
bell-shaped curve
When you fold a normal cure, each half fits perfectly on top of the other, a characteristic known as ______
symmetry
Under the normal curve, what percentage of scores, approximately, falls between -1 and +1 standard deviations around the mean?
68%
Which standard score indicates the number of standard deviations from the mean?
z score
What is the standard used by statisticians to determine the probability of something occurring outside of chance alone?
5%
What is the most commonly used standard score?
z score
What percentage of scores fall on either side of the normal curve distribution?
50%
Probability allows us to determine the exact mathematical likelihood that a difference between groups is due to practice or treatment, as compared with chance or error.
True
The normal curve is not always symmetrical.
False
What is the term associated with identifying differences between groups that are not due to chance?
Significance
Inferential statistics is based on which of the following?
The sample is representative of the population.
What kind of error do you make when you reject the null hypothesis when there is actually no difference between groups?
Type I
When you accept the null hypothesis while it is actually false, what kind of error do you make?
Type II
The most commonly used significance level researchers are willing to take in testing the null hypothesis is ______.
0.05
After establishing the null hypothesis, what is the next step in the application of a statistical test?
Set the level of significance.
The first step in testing a hypothesis is ______
provide a statement of the null hypothesis
Which technique is used to generalize findings from the sample to the population?
inferential statistics
There is always the possibility of error when making a judgment in statistics.
True
It is possible to control for every possible factor in a research study.
False
Using sample observations that we can see to make guesses about likely characteristics of a population that we can't see is called ______.
inferential statistics
One of the most popular and powerful analytic tools available today is ______.
SPSS
The descriptive statistic that is also known as the average is the ______
mean
What term is used to describe the science of organizing and analyzing information to make the information more easily understood?
statistics
Which of the following would be used to describe the type of statistical methods used to organize and describe the characteristics of a collection of data?
descriptive statistics
The average age of everyone in the class is an example of what type of statistics?
descriptive
A common goal in statistics is to ______.
generalize results from a sample to a population
Using statistics helps us make decisions based on what kind of evidence?
empirical
T/F
Generally, the same statistics are used in most disciplines.
True
T/F
It is not necessary for all members of a sample to be members of the population.
False
What is another term for the mean in a set of data?
the arithmetic average
What is the formula for computing the mean?
ΣX / n
The ______ is the value that best represents an entire group of scores.
average
What is the median for the following amounts: $9.75, $11.75, $12.00, $8.75, $9.50, $8.50, $8.75?
$9.50
The measure of central tendency considered the most precise is ______.
the mean
What does the symbol Σ represent?
the sum of scores
If your current examination mean is 97.2 and you receive a 99 on the next examination, what effect will this have?
Your mean will increase.
Which measure of central tendency is also known as the midpoint for a set of scores?
the median
T/F
The three measures of central tendency--the mean, median, and mode--are all interchangeable.
False
T/F
The nominal level of measurement can be the least precise.
True
Name the most basic method of illustrating data.
frequency distribution
The term associated with the upper or lower boundary of a set of scores used in the creation of a frequency distribution is ______.
class interval
What is the size of the interval in a distribution of 50 with 10 intervals?
5
Where is the largest class interval placed on a frequency distribution?
at the top
If you wanted to examine the proportion of students in your class who are male compared to female, which of the following might you use?
pie chart
The horizontal axis on a graph is called ______.
x-axis
What is the general principle of labelling in graph design?
label everything
If you were interested in tracking your GPA during the time you are in graduate school, which of the following might you use?
line graph
T/F
A chart alone should convey everything you want to say about your data.
True
T/F
It is advisable to use every feature a computer program has to create charts and graphs of your data.
False
A correlation coefficient is a numerical index that reflects the relationship between ______.
two variables
The Pearson's correlation coefficient examines variables that are ______ in nature.
continuous
Correlation coefficients are used to describe which of the following?
a group
What is the range of possible values of the Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient?
-1.0 to 1.0
What type of correlation should you use to compute the correlation between two ordinal-level variables?
Spearman's rank
If variables change in the same direction, what type of relationship is this called?
positive correlation
What type of correlation exists if the more you exercise, the less you will weigh?
negative correlation
What is the Pearson's correlation coefficient when the coefficient of determination between two variables is .81?
0.90
T/F
Using the coefficient of determination is more precise than using a correlation coefficient alone.
True
T/F
It is more desirable to find a positive correlation than a negative correlation.
False
In a simple analysis of variance, how many factor(s) or treatment variables are included in the analysis?
only one
In a simple analysis of variance, what does the term "simple" indicate?
that participants are grouped and compared in only one way
When the research question calls for an examination of the differences in group means among three or more groups, what is the appropriate procedure?
analysis of variance
Which of the following is an example of a design that examines the effects of gender and socioeconomic status (i.e., high, medium, and low) on a test of student achievement?
2 × 3 ANOVA
What is the dependent variable in a study in which you examine whether the degree of parental involvement differs based on students' grade in school (first, second, third, etc.)?
degree of parent involvement
What is the first step in the computation of the F statistic?
State the null and research hypotheses.
When the amount of variability due to within-group differences is equal to the amount of variability due to between-group differences, what is the F value?
1
What is the next step after stating the null and research hypotheses in the computation of the F statistic?
Set the level of risk.
ANOVA refers to analysis of variance.
True
When you perform multiple t tests, you increase the Type II error rate higher than an acceptable rate.
False
What does the correlation coefficient measure?
association
Correlation coefficients examine ______.
the relationship between variables
Correlations can be which of the following?
directional or nondirectional
Which of the following is an example of a null hypothesis for testing a correlation coefficient?
H 0: ρxy = 0
What does the n represent in the formula for calculating degrees of freedom for a correlation coefficient?
number of pairs
When a research hypothesis does not predict the direction of a relationship, the test is ______.
two-tailed
What is the obtained value in the equation r (65) = 0.45, p < 0.05?
0.45
The relationship between chocolate sales and student happiness can be tested using the ______.
t statistic
Correlation coefficients examine relationship between variables.
True
A correlation coefficient can only test one variable at a time.
False
What is the term for statistics that are not governed by distributions?
nonparametric
What is the expected frequency for each category when you have 100 respondents identifying their gender?
50
In the result X²(3) = 8.4, p < 0.05, what is X²?
the chi-square statistic
With five categories for which you are calculating a one-sample chi-square, what are the degrees of freedom?
4
What will the chi-square value be when there is almost no difference between what is observed and what is expected?
close to 0
Which of the following is the Greek symbol chi?
X
What is the most commonly used nonparametric test?
chi-square
What is another term for nonparametric statistics?
distribution-free statistics
Nonparametric statistics incorporate fewer assumptions than parametric statistics.
True
The one-sample chi-square focuses on the distribution of two variables.
False
All but which of the following is a use of descriptive statistics?
interpreting data
Examples of uses of descriptive statistics
collecting data summarizing data
organizing data
A common goal in statistics is to ______.
generalize results from a sample to a population
Descriptive measures are most often used _____
to describe how often something occurs
When there is an even number of scores, how is the median calculated?
It is the average of the two middle scores.
The measure of central tendency considered the least precise is the ______
mode
The measure of central tendency most influenced by outliers is the ______.
mean
What is the symbol used to represent the mean?
All of the following are measures of variability EXCEPT ______.
mean
Which of the following measures how different scores are from one particular score?
variability
measures of variability
range
standard deviation
variance
What is another term for variability?
spread or dispersion
What are the three tools used to assess variability?
range, standard deviation, and variance
As your sample size grows larger, your standard deviation will be ______.
a more accurate estimate of the population
The highest score minus the lowest score is equal to the ______.
exclusive range
Which of the following sets of scores has the greatest variability?
a. 7, 10, 11, 15, 19
b. 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7
c. 7, 7, 8, 8, 10, 11
d. 6, 6, 7, 7, 7, 7
7, 10, 11, 15, 19
Which of the following sets of scores has the least variability?
a. 12, 14, 17, 19, 21
b. 1, 2, 1, 7, 9
c. 5, 4, 5, 6, 5
d. 7, 2, 8, 9, 4
c. 5, 4, 5, 6, 5
What is a graphical representation of a frequency distribution?
histogram
If you wanted to examine the proportion of students in this class who are male compared to female, which of the following might you use?
Pie Chart
What is the general principle of labeling in graph design?
Label everything.
If you calculate the average of individual income and find no outliers, which measure of central tendency should you use?
mean
A test score in the 47th percentile would be considered ______
about average
Using the coefficient of determination is more precise than using a correlation coefficient alone
True
If variables change in the same direction, what type of relationship is this called?
positive correlation
The Pearson's correlation coefficient examines variables that are ______ in nature
continuous
What is the range of possible values of the Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient?
-1.0 to 1.0
It is more desirable to find a positive correlation than a negative correlation.
false
Interrater reliability is an example of which of the following?
measure of agreement
A researcher examines how comprehension affects test scores. What is the independent variable?
comprehension
What would the interrater reliability be for a 100-item measure in which the number of agreements between Rater 1 and Rater 2 was 80?
80%
What is the term associated with identifying differences between groups that are not due to chance?
significance
When you accept the null hypothesis while it is actually false, what kind of error do you make?
Type II
Which technique is used to generalize findings from the sample to the population?
inferential statistics
What kind of error do you make when you reject the null hypothesis when there is actually no difference between groups?
Type I
The test statistic value calculated by the statistical procedure selected is known as the ______.
observed value
Which of the following techniques is used to generalize findings from the sample to the population?
inferential statistics
A(n) ______ difference is due to some systematic influence and NOT due to chance.
significant
What is the outcome when a null hypothesis has been rejected and the null hypothesis is TRUE?
a Type I error
When you accept the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is false, you are making a ______
Type II error
When we say p < .05, it suggests that there is a less than 5 chance in ______ that any differences found were NOT due to the hypothesized reason.
100
In the inferential process, there is always the possibility of ______.
error
Statistical significance is also known as the risk of ______.
a Type I error
You have compared the obtained value with the critical value. What do you do next?
Reject the null hypothesis if the obtained value is more extreme than the critical value.
If the obtained value is greater than the critical value, what should you do?
reject the null hypothesis
In the formula for calculating a z score, what does σ signify?
the population standard deviation
After the z value is calculated, locate the ______ from a table of z scores.
critical value
In the statement, z = 1.42, p > 0.05, which of the following interpretations is TRUE?
There is not a significant difference between the sample value and the population.
For the t-test, the population's standard deviation is ______.
Not known
A value of 0.2 for the z value after conducting a one-sample Z test leads to which conclusion?
Accept the null hypothesis .
In the formula that computes a t value, what does s₁² represent?
variance for Group 1
When using a t test for dependent means, what is true of the sample?
They are the same group.
Dr. Moo would like to find out if participants who ate glazed donuts became happier after they ate jelly-filled donuts. To determine this, what test should Dr. Moo use?
dependent-samples t test
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